## Noise trading arbitrage

traders. More particularly, I suggest that noise-trader induced volatility is strong enough to limit the size of arbitrage positions to a level where they cannot suggested that due to the interaction of noise and arbitrage traders, stock returns are inherently non-linear, whereby market dynamics differ between small and 27 Jun 2019 He defines noise trading as “Trading that is uncorrelated with changes in fundamental or intrinsic value” and also that noise trading may occur for Second, arbitrage—defined as trading by fully rational investors not subject to such sentiment—is risky and therefore limited. The two assumptions together Efficient Market Hypothesis and the No Arbitrage Condition. [33], noise trader risk refers to the risk that the mispricing worsens in the short run because there is

## Convergence trade is a trading strategy consisting of two positions: buying one asset forward—i.e., for delivery in future (going long the asset)—and selling a similar asset forward (going short the asset) for a higher price, in the expectation that by the time the assets must be delivered, the prices will have become closer to equal (will have converged), and thus one profits by the

A noise trader is a general term used to describe traders or investors who make decisions regarding buy and sell trades in securities markets without the support of professional advice or advanced fundamental or technical analysis. If arbitrage is costly and noise traders are active, asset prices may deviate from fundamental values for long periods of time. We use a sample of 158 closed‐end funds to show that noise‐trader sentiment, as proxied by retail‐investor flows, leads to fluctuations in the discount. If arbitrage is costly and noise traders are active, asset prices may deviate from fundamental values for long periods of time. We use a sample of 158 closed-end funds to show that noise-trader sentiment, as proxied by retail-investor flows, leads to fluctuations in the discount. Nevertheless, we reject the hypothesis that noise-trader risk is the cause of the long-run discount. the random trading activities of noise traders have driven asset prices away from fundamental valuations, rational arbitrageurs will be reluctant to rectify such mispricings because the on-going, unpredictable trading activity of the noise traders leaves open the possibility that the existing mispricings may widen rather than narrow. Noise traders can do this because their trading actions are completely unpredictable and noisy. As such, the random trading of noise traders confronts rational traders with a unique, non-diversifiable risk that deters them from fully and immediately rectifying the mispricings caused by the noise traders.

### (i) Mispricing and arbitrage can exist in a market equilibrium. Instead, the model assumes that noise traders occasionally shock the red and green bond.

traders. More particularly, I suggest that noise-trader induced volatility is strong enough to limit the size of arbitrage positions to a level where they cannot suggested that due to the interaction of noise and arbitrage traders, stock returns are inherently non-linear, whereby market dynamics differ between small and

### the random trading activities of noise traders have driven asset prices away from fundamental valuations, rational arbitrageurs will be reluctant to rectify such mispricings because the on-going, unpredictable trading activity of the noise traders leaves open the possibility that the existing mispricings may widen rather than narrow.

The dynamics of asymmetric information (Σ l) thus confirms Black’s (1986) conjecture that prices will be less efficient as the amount of speculative noise trading increases.In the literature, there is a debate about whether more noise trading in the market leads to less efficient prices.

## We consider speculative noise trading when some naïve speculators trade on noise as if it were information [Black, F., 1986. Noise. Journal of Finance 41,

A noise trader also known informally as idiot trader is described in the literature of financial research as a stock trader whose decisions to buy, sell, or hold are irrational and erratic. The presence of noise traders in financial markets can then cause prices and Alpha · Arbitrage pricing theory · Beta · Bid–ask spread · Book value · Capital We consider speculative noise trading when some naïve speculators trade on noise as if it were information [Black, F., 1986. Noise. Journal of Finance 41,

Noise-Trading and Limits to 1- 1 Arbitrage Market efficiency – Market efficiency theoretically rests on three supports: investor rationality, uncorrelated errors, and unlimited arbitrage – Support 1: all investors are always rational The behavior of US closed-end funds is very different from that of UK funds. There is no evidence that the US funds' discounts are constrained by arbitrage barriers, no evidence that higher expenses increase discounts and no evidence that replication risk increases discounts but strong evidence that noise-trader risk is priced. Noise-trader Risk: Does it Deter Arbitrage, and Is it Priced? Sean Masaki Flynn⁄ September 12, 2005 ABSTRACT Arbitrage positions that beneﬁt from the reversion of closed-end fund discounts to rational levels show excess returns that increase in magnitude the more funds are mispriced. At the same time, fund trading volumes and bid-ask Gemmill and Thomas (2002) test the impact of noise trading and costly arbitrage on closed-end fund discount and find that the discount is consistent with the noise trader model and that the